Saturday, January 31, 2015

Suffocating Bone Cancer Cells

BioMedical Engineering Technology

Science Imitating Nature: “The inspiration for spinning a molecular cage around cells came from nature, says Rein V. Ulijn of the City University of New York’s Hunter College,” SciAmer says.
Credit: National Cancer Institute
Source: SciAmer

An article, by Erika Gebel Berg  in Scientific American says that chemists have designed a molecule that can trap bone cancer cells in a web made of nanofibres, essentially depriving them of nutrients and suffocating them.

Gebel Berg writes:
Chemists have designed a carbohydrate-based molecule that can surround and strangle bone cancer cells by self-assembling into a tangled web of nanofibers (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, DOI: 10.1021/ ja5111893). The molecule spares healthy cells because its assembly is triggered by an enzyme that’s overexpressed on cancer cells.

The inspiration for spinning a molecular cage around cells came from nature, says Rein V. Ulijn of the City University of New York’s Hunter College. Many of the body’s cells are enmeshed in an extracellular matrix—a complex web of biomolecules that provides structure for tissues, facilitates intercellular communication, and traps nutrients. Scientists are developing molecules that spontaneously assemble into simpler versions of this matrix to provide a growth medium for cells, in particular for tissue engineering.

The field has focused mainly on self-assembling peptides. In a recent study, Bing Xu of Brandeis University and colleagues designed a nonnurturing peptide that aggregates and engulfs cancer cells only when its phosphate group is removed (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201402216). The phosphate-free peptides have a hydrophilic end and a hydrophobic one, which allow them to assemble like lipids in a cell membrane. The negative charge on the phosphate groups creates electrostatic repulsion between the molecules and prevents this. This phosphate on-off switch is great for targeting cancer because some types of cancer cells overexpress alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme that cleaves phosphates.
Science imitating nature is what science often does, unraveling the mysteries of nature and then applying them to solving human problems, thus bettering the lives of many. While this result is promising, it requires further research and tinkering, since the dosage applied in this study is higher than what is typically used for chemo drugs. Some serious side effects might result. Thus, this is not yet ready for the marketplace, but the innovative idea nevertheless shows promise.

You can read more at [SciAmer].

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